Socjolog Dobo twierdzi, że przed 5 rokiem życia dziewczynki wykazują zainteresowanie lalkami, akcesoriami dla lalek, rysowaniem i maskotkami, podczas gdy chłopcy będą woleć klocki, małe pojazdy, narzędzia i głośne zabawy . W tym przypadku, narrator był zadowolony z poprzedniej kariery, ale potrzeba rozwoju zawodowego wynika z rozwodu, kryzysu wieku lub dorastających dzieci . Podczas gdy pojęcie tożsamości płciowej ogólnie odnosi się do kategorii płci inni uczeni dodatkowo używają tego pojęcia do określenia kategorii orientacji seksualnej i tożsamości seksualnej takich jak gej , lesbijka czy biseksualista .
Background[ edit ] Pakistan ranks third-worst — out of — on the Gender Parity Index of the World Economic Forum WEF  Pakistan's women literacy is so low that more than five million primary-school-age girls don't go to school.
Estimates therefore range from to victim Christian girls per year. For the Hindu community, the most conservative estimates put the number of victims at per year.
Pakistani woman, she argues, are expected to guard their sexuality, are controlled, and can even be murdered in honour killings when they do not meet cultural expectations. Ziya, this cultural orthodoxy is produced and sponsored by state, the government, and its agency the ISPR as propaganda engineered to influence the public in its own pre-decided way, and censor what it considers to be unsuitable.
They mobilised support, leading to the passage of the Muslim Personal Law of Sharia inwhich recognised a woman's right to inherit all forms of property.
There Warianty binarne Pakistanu an attempt to have the government include a Charter of Women's Rights in the constitution, but this was unsuccessful.
The Muslim Family Laws Ordinance covering marriage and divorce, the most important sociolegal reform to have had Feminist drive in Pakistan, is still widely regarded as empowering to women.
Jinnah later founded a secret radio station, and, incame out of her self-imposed political retirement to participate in the presidential election against military dictator Ayub Khan.
Begum Ra'na Liaquat Ali Khan helped the refugees who fled India during partition and also organised the All Pakistan Women's Association in two years after the creation of her country.
Noticing that there were not many nurses in Karachi, Khan requested the army to train women to give injections and first aid, resulting in the para-military forces for women.
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Nursing also became a career path for many girls. She continued her mission, even after her husband was assassinated inand became the first female Muslim delegate to the United Nations in Second phase: s[ edit ] The end of s heralded a new wave of political Islamisation in many Muslim majority countries.
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In Pakistan, the military dictatorial regime of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq gained power and initiated the Islamisation of Pakistan. These reforms replaced parts of the British-era Pakistan Penal Codemaking adultery and fornication criminal offences, and introducing the punishments of whippingamputationKanadyjczyk z nami Opcje udostepniania stoning to death.
The feminist movement in Pakistan highly opposed this implementation of Islam, which was they believed to be based on an archaic understanding of Islamic literature, asking instead for liberal modernist interpretation. Warianty binarne Pakistanu much controversy and criticism, parts of the law were considerably revised by the Women's Protection Bill.
In this context, the vocal Women's Action Forum WAF was formed in   According to Madihah Akhter, General Zia ultimately sought to morally police the role of women in the public sphere, which brought unexpected pressure on Pakistani women. As a reaction to the form of Zia's Islamisation, many Pakistani women, including writers, academics, and performers, became active in the opposition of these policies.
Akhter argue that the younger generation of 's activists were more feminist in their outlook and approach; the Women's Action Forum, she says, used "progressive interpretations of Islam" to counter the state's implementation of religiously interpreted morality, and in doing so, succeeded in gaining the unexpected support of right wing Islamic women's organisations too.
They campaigned through various mediums, such as newspaper articles, art, poetry, and song  After Zia: —[ edit ] Since the end of General Zia's rule, Pakistan elected Warianty binarne Pakistanu first female prime minister - Benazir Bhutto.
Some feminist legislative attempts were made, such as the founding of all-women police stations, and the appointing of female judges for the first time.
Historia i definicje[ edytuj edytuj kod ] James Shupe ang. Freud wykazał, że człowiek w okresie wczesnodziecięcym nie rozróżnia swej płci: zakłada, że rodzice posiadają tę samą płeć i te same umiejętności rozrodcze. Na tej podstawie wywnioskował, że biseksualizm jest pierwotną orientacją seksualną, oraz że heteroseksualizm jest rezultatem okresu fallicznego między 5 a 7 rokiem życiapodczas którego ustalana jest tożsamość płciowa. Według Freuda, podczas fazy fallicznej dziecko rozwija kompleks Edypagdzie ma fantazje seksualne związane z rodzicem płci przeciwnej, przy jednoczesnej niechęci do rodzica tej samej płci. Nienawiść ta przekształca się nieświadomie identyfikację ze znienawidzonym rodzicem, który zarówno jest wzorcem zaspokajającym impulsy seksualne oraz zagrażającym pozbawienia zdolności dziecka do zaspokojenia tych impulsów .
Many of anti-feminist laws of General Zia era remained. Post-Zia, activists have been able to produce research that has focused on strengthening the political voice of women, and inclusive democratic governance.
The movement gained momentum as women were increasingly able to share their ideas and beliefs. Aurat March Women Marches are now held in numerous cities over the country. The subjects and issues raised by the marches include increased political participation and representation of women, gender and sexual minorities, religious minorities and other marginalized groups in Pakistan.
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The movement has also demanded for public spaces to be made safer for women and transgender people, as well as called for an end to all violence against women and transgender people.
Liberal Feminism in Pakistan[ edit ] Liberal Feminism is most prominent in leftist liberal circles, and is often supported by left-leaning political parties such as PPP. Nisaism[ edit ] Nisaism is more traditionalist in nature and supports the acquisition of women rights under an Islamic lens.
The movement is mainly supported by centrists and the right-wing parties of Pakistan. The word Nisaism comes from Surah Nisa, a chapter of Qur'an, demonstrating the Islamic roots of the movement.
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The movement has faced some criticism for preaching Islamic rights and accepting what other atheist feminist groups call the 'Islamic patriarchal structure of Pakistan'. Feminist Art and Literature in Pakistan[ edit ] Much of Pakistani femininist art and literature struggles against orthodox advice literatureknown for imposing religious dogma through puritanical reform;  feminist authors often describe the journey of feminism in Pakistan as an oscillating battle, where women's movements struggle against the continued backlash of the patriarchal hegemony.
Television and Film likewise continues to present submissive and subservient Pakistani women in a male-dominated Pakistani society. Sirajuddin in the Encyclopedia of Post-Colonial Literature in English, expresses reservations Warianty binarne Pakistanu the availability of free space for feminism in Pakistan, and feels that the nation is still much affected by religious fervour.
However, she admits that an awareness of feminist concerns, the changing role of women, and female identity do exist in Pakistan, and these concerns are reflected in Pakistan's English literature. She is remembered for her short stories depicting the sexual agency of women,  notably the collection, Angaaray The book railed against social inequity, hypocritical maulvis and the exploitation of women in patriarchal society.
Feminism in Pakistan
Of the two pieces that Jahan contributed to Angaaray was Dilli ki Sair; a narrative about a burqa-clad woman watching life on a railway platform waiting for her husband to turn up and take her home. The story meditates on life 'behind the veil' and the blindness of male privilege towards the experience of women behind the purdah. The other piece, Parde Ke Peeche, is a conversation between two women from affluent, sharif respectable families.
Muslim orthodox clergy in the then united India opposed the book, forcing publishers to withdraw it. The British government too preferred to ban the book for its own political convenience.
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Main article: Ismat Chughtai Beginning in the s, Ismat Chughtai wrote extensively on themes including female sexuality and femininitymiddle-class gentility, and class conflictoften from a Marxist perspective. She is the author of three novels. Songs of Blood and Sword is a memoir of her father, who was assassinated.